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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ALL

Face
(a) A term used in brillianteering for the entire group of facets that can be placed won a diamond without reposition it in the dop; vis., two star facets and four upper-break facets or four lower-break facets. (b) In crystallography, a natural, plane surface on a crystal.
Facet
A plane, polished surface on a diamond or other gemstone.
Faceting
The operation of placing facets on a diamond or other gem.
Fancy Cut
Any style of diamond cutting other than the round brilliant or single cut. Fancy cuts include the marquise, emerald cut, heart shape, pear shape, keystone, half moon, kite, triangle, and many others. Also called the “fancy-shaped” diamond or “modern cut.”
Fancy Diamond
Any diamond with a natural body color strong enough to be attractive, rather than off color. Reddish (the pure red of ruby is extremely rare), blue and green are very rare; orange and violet, rare; strong yellow, yellowish-green brown and black stones are more common.
Fancy Yellow
This term is generally applied to many diamonds that do not deserve the grade. It is important to keep in mind there is an increase in price and beauty when you get to this grade. The term fancy yellow is applied a diamond that is at the first level. The following grades will be intense yellow and then vivid yellow.
Feather
When the plane of cleavage or fracture in a diamond is viewed at right angle to it, the appearance is often reminiscent of a feather. Thus, cleavage and fractures are often called “feathers.”
Fire
Flashes of different spectrum colors seen in diamonds and other gemstones as the result of dispersion.
Fisheye
A diamond whose pavilion is exceedingly shallow, producing a glassy appearance and a noticeable dearth of brilliancy.
Fissure
An elongated cavity in a diamond’s surface. It may or may not have occurred along the line where a cleavage reached the surface.
Fl or Flawless
The recommended term for a diamond without external or internal flaws or blemishes of any description when viewed by a trained eye under efficient illumination and under a corrected magnifier of not less than ten power; binocular magnification under dark-field illumination is preferred. The American Gem Society advocates the use of the term “flawless” by its members, while at the same time denying them the use of the term perfect. The Federal Trade Commission permits the use of the term “flawless,” but only if a stone conforms to its definition of the word perfect, without reference to make or color.
Flat Stone
A diamond brilliant with a very thin crown and pavilion.
Flaw
Any external or internal imperfection on a fashioned diamond; e.g., a feather, fissure, carbon spot, knot, etc. Some diamond men limit its use to internal faults only, using the term blemish for surface faults. The terms “flaw” and ”imperfection” are usually used interchangeably.
Flawless
The recommended term for a diamond without external or internal flaws or blemishes of any description when viewed by a trained eye under efficient illumination and under a corrected magnifier of not less than ten power; binocular magnification under dark-field illumination is preferred. The American Gem Society advocates the use of the term “flawless” by its members, while at the same time denying them the use of the term perfect. The Federal Trade Commission permits the use of the term “flawless,” but only if a stone conforms to its definition of the word perfect, without reference to make or color.
Flourescence
The property of changing the wavelength of radiation to one in the visible range; for example, the visible wavelengths emitted by a material when excited by invisible radiation (such as X-rays, ultraviolet rays or cathode rays), as well as by certain visible wavelengths. It is exhibited by ruby, kunzite, yellow-green synthetic spinel, some diamonds and opals, and many other substances.
Four C’s
A phrase coined for advertising purposes that sums up the numerous factors affecting diamond value into four categories: color, clarity, cutting, and carat weight.
Fracture
The breaking or chipping of a stone along a direction other than a cleavage plane.
Full-cut Brilliant
A brilliant-cut diamond or colored stone with the usual total of 58 facets, consisting of 32 facets and a table above the girdle and 24 facets and culet below.
Fuzzy Girdle or Bearded Girdle
If a diamond is rounded up too quickly in the fashioning process, the surface of the girdle will lack the smoothness and waxy luster of a finely turned girdle. Consequently, numerous minute, hairline fractures extend a short distance into the stone. A girdle with this appearance is referred to as being “bearded” or “fuzzy.”


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